You can perform calculations and logical comparisons in a table by using formulas.

The

**Formula**command is found on the

**Table Tools**,

**Layout**tab, in the

**Data**group.

**Note:**Formulas in Word tables are a type of field code.

**Insert a formula in a table cell**

- Select the table cell where you want your result. If the cell is not empty, delete its contents.
- On the
**Table Tools**,**Layout**tab, in the**Data**group, click**Formula**. - Use the
**Formula**dialog box to create your formula. You can type in the**Formula**box, select a number format from the**Number Format**list, and paste in functions and bookmarks using the**Paste Function**and**Paste Bookmark**lists.

**Update formula results**

In Word, the result of a formula is calculated when it is inserted, and when the document containing the formula opens.

You can also manually update:

- The result of one or more specific formulas
- The results of all formulas in a specific table
- All the field codes in a document, including formulas

**Update the result of specific formulas**

- Select the formulas that you want to update. You can select multiple formulas by holding down the CTRL key while you make selections.
- Do one of the following:
- Right-click the formula, then click
**Update field**. - Press F9.

- Right-click the formula, then click

**Update all the formula results in a table**

- Select the table that contains formula results that you want to update, and then press F9.

**Update all the formulas in a document**

**Important:**This procedure updates all the field codes in a document, not just formulas.

- Press CTRL+A.
- Press F9.

**Examples: Sum numbers in a table by using positional arguments**

You can use positional arguments (LEFT, RIGHT, ABOVE, BELOW) with these functions:

- AVERAGE
- COUNT
- MAX
- MIN
- PRODUCT
- SUM

**Important:**To avoid an error while summing in a table by using positional arguments, type a zero (0) in any empty cell that will be included in the calculation.

- Select the table cell where you want your result. If the cell is not empty, delete its contents.
- On the
**Table Tools**,**Layout**tab, in the**Data**group, click**Formula**. - In the
**Formula**dialog box, do one of the following:

To add the numbers… |
Type this in the Formula box |

Above the cell |
=SUM(ABOVE) |

Below the cell |
=SUM(BELOW) |

Above and below the cell |
=SUM(ABOVE,BELOW) |

Left of the cell |
=SUM(LEFT) |

Right of the cell |
=SUM(RIGHT) |

Left and right of the cell |
=SUM(LEFT,RIGHT) |

Left of and above the cell |
=SUM(LEFT,ABOVE) |

Right of and above the cell |
=SUM(RIGHT,ABOVE) |

Left of and below the cell |
=SUM(LEFT,BELOW) |

Right of and below the cell |
=SUM(RIGHT,BELOW) |

**Available functions**

**Note:**Formulas that use positional arguments (e.g., LEFT) do not include values in header rows.

The following functions are available for use in Word and Outlook table formulas:

Function |
What it does |
Example |
Returns |

ABS() |
Calculates the absolute value of the value inside the parentheses |
=ABS(-22) |
22 |

AND() |
Evaluates whether the arguments inside the parentheses are all TRUE. |
=AND(SUM(LEFT)<10, SUM(ABOVE)>=5) |
1, if the sum of the values to the left of the formula (in the same row) is less than 10 and the sum of the values above the formula (in the same column, excluding any header cell) is greater than or equal to 5; 0 otherwise. |

AVERAGE() |
Calculates the average of items identified inside the parentheses. |
=AVERAGE(RIGHT) |
The average of all values to the right of the formula cell, in the same row. |

COUNT() |
Calculates the count of items identified inside the parentheses. |
=COUNT(LEFT) |
The number of values to the left of the formula cell, in the same row. |

DEFINED() |
Evaluates whether the argument inside the parentheses is defined. Returns 1 if the argument has been defined and evaluates without error, 0 if the argument has not been defined or returns an error. |
=DEFINED(gross_income) |
1, if gross_income has been defined and evaluates without error; 0 otherwise. |

FALSE |
Takes no arguments. Always returns 0. |
=FALSE |
0 |

IF() |
Evaluates the first argument. Returns the second argument if the first argument is true; returns the third argument if the first argument is false. Note: Requires exactly three arguments. |
=IF(SUM(LEFT)>=10,10,0) |
10, if the sum of values to the left of the formula is at least 10; 0 otherwise. |

INT() |
Rounds the value inside the parentheses down to the nearest integer. |
=INT(5.67) |
5 |

MAX() |
Returns the maximum value of the items identified inside the parentheses. |
=MAX(ABOVE) |
The maximum value found in the cells above the formula (excluding any header rows). |

MIN() |
Returns the minimum value of the items identified inside the parentheses. |
=MIN(ABOVE) |
The minimum value found in the cells above the formula (excluding any header rows). |

MOD() |
Takes two arguments (must be numbers or evaluate to numbers). Returns the remainder after the second argument is divided by the first. If the remainder is 0 (zero), returns 0.0 |
=MOD(4,2) |
0.0 |

NOT() |
Takes one argument. Evaluates whether the argument is true. Returns 0 if the argument is true, 1 if the argument is false. Mostly used inside an IF formula. |
=NOT(1=1) |
0 |

OR() |
Takes two arguments. If either is true, returns 1. If both are false, returns 0. Mostly used inside an IF formula. |
=OR(1=1,1=5) |
1 |

PRODUCT() |
Calculates the product of items identified inside the parentheses. |
=PRODUCT(LEFT) |
The product of multiplying all the values found in the cells to the left of the formula. |

ROUND() |
Takes two arguments (first argument must be a number or evaluate to a number; second argument must be an integer or evaluate to an integer). Rounds the first argument to the number of digits specified by the second argument. If the second argument is greater than zero (0), first argument is rounded down to the specified number of digits. If second argument is zero (0), first argument is rounded down to the nearest integer. If second argument is negative, first argument is rounded down to the left of the decimal. |
=ROUND(123.456, 2) =ROUND(123.456, 0) =ROUND(123.456, -2) |
123.46 123 100 |

SIGN() |
Takes one argument that must either be a number or evaluate to a number. Evaluates whether the item identified inside the parentheses if greater than, equal to, or less than zero (0). Returns 1 if greater than zero, 0 if zero, -1 if less than zero. |
=SIGN(-11) |
-1 |

SUM() |
Calculates the sum of items identified inside the parentheses. |
=SUM(RIGHT) |
The sum of the values of the cells to the right of the formula. |

TRUE() |
Takes one argument. Evaluates whether the argument is true. Returns 1 if the argument is true, 0 if the argument is false. Mostly used inside an IF formula. |
=TRUE(1=0) |
0 |

**Use bookmark names or cell references in a formula**

You can refer to a bookmarked cell by using its bookmark name in a formula. For example, if you have bookmarked a cell that contains or evaluates to a number with the bookmark name

**gross_income**, the formula =ROUND(

**gross_income**,0) rounds the value of that cell down to the nearest integer.

You can also use column and row references in a formula. There are two reference styles: RnCn and A1.

**Note:**The cell that contains the formula is not included in a calculation that uses a reference. If the cell is part of the reference, it is ignored.

**RnCn references**

You can refer to a table row, column, or cell in a formula by using the RnCn reference convention. In this convention, Rn refers to the nth row, and Cn refers to the nth column. For example, R1C2 refers to the cell that is in first row and the second column. The following table contains examples of this reference style.

To refer to… |
…use this reference style |

An entire column |
Cn |

An entire row |
Rn |

A specific cell |
RnCn |

The row that contains the formula |
R |

The column that contains the formula |
C |

All the cells between two specified cells |
RnCn:RnCn |

A cell in a bookmarked table |
Bookmarkname RnCn |

A range of cells in a bookmarked table |
Bookmarkname RnCn:RnCn |

**A1 references**

You can refer to a cell, a set of cells, or a range of cells by using the A1 reference convention. In this convention, the letter refers to the cell’s column and the number refers to the cell’s row. The first column in a table is column A; the first row is row 1. The following table contains examples of this reference style.

To refer to… |
…use this reference |

The cell in the first column and the second row |
A2 |

The first two cells in the first row |
A1,B1 |

All the cells in the first column and the first two cells in the second column |
A1:B2 |